THI AI HUNG VNG

Trong quoc s, thi ai Hung Vng la thi ai m au, thi ai nay thuoc ve co s, cach ay may nghn nam nen van b thi gian bao  phu nhng b an. V vay nhie nha s hoc coi thi ai nay la thi ai truyen ky.

Theo Viet Nam s lc cua Tran Trong Kim Th vua e Minh la chau ba i Vua Than Nong ben Tau i tuan thu phng Nam en nui Ngu Lnh (thuoc tnh Ho Nam bay gi) gap mot nang tien lay nhaue ra ngi con at ten la Loc Tuc. Sau e Minh truyen ngoi lai cho ngi con trng la e Nghi lam Vua phng bac, va phong cho Loc Tuc lam Vua phng Nam, Loc Tuc len ngoi xng la Kinh Dng Dng, quoc hieu la Xch QuY ( bao gom mien Giang Nam va Lnh Nam cua Trung Hoa pha Bac, chay giap vi nc Chiem Thanh mat nam). Kinh Dng vng lam vua nc Xch Quy vao khoang nam Nham Tuat (2879 trc tay lch ) th lay con gai ong nh quan la Long N roi sinh ra Sung Lam, sau noi ngoi cha tc la Lac Long Quan. Lac Long Quan lay con gai vua e Lai la nang Au C, e ra mot tram trng n thanh mot tram con trai. Mot hom Lac Long Quan bao Au C rang Ta la loai rong sinh nc , nang la giong tien goc nui, von khac nhau, khong  the lau vi nhau c, nay cho nang nam mi con len nui, con nam mui con theo ta ve bien Xong Lac Long Quan phong cho ngi con trng lam vua nc Van Lang ong o Phong Chau ( nay la huyen Bach Hac, tnh Vnh Yen) at quan van la Lac Hau quan vo la Lac Tng, con trai vua la Quan lang, con gai Vua la M Nng quan nho la Bo Chnh, quyen chnh tr th c cha truyen con noi, goi la phu ao.

Van theo sach tren th nc VAn Lang chia lam mi lam bo.

  1. Van lang ( Bach Hac tnh Vnh yen )

  2. Chau Dien ( Sn Tay )

  3. Phuc Loc ( Sn Tay )

  4. Tan Hng ( Hng Hoa, Tuyen Quang )

  5. Vu nh ( Thai Nguyen, Cao Bang )

  6. Vu Ninh ( Bac Ninh )

  7. Luc Hai ( Lang Sn )

  8. Ninh Hai ( Quang Yen )

  9. Dng Tuyen ( Hai Dng )

  10. Giao ch ( Ha Noi, Hng Yen, Nam nh, Ninh Bnh )

  11. Cu Chan ( Thanh Hoa )

  12. Hoai Hoan ( Nghe an )

  13. Cu c ( Ha Tnh )

  14. Viet Thng ( Quang Bnh , Quang Tr )

  15. Bnh Van ( ? )

Ve i bay gi, s Tau co chep rang nam Tan Mao ( 1109 trc tay lch ) i Vua Thanh Vng nha Chu co nc Viet Thng pha Nam Giao Ch saiem chim Bach Tr sang cong, nha Chu phai cho ngi thong ngon, mi hieu c tiengva ong Chu Cong an phai che ra xe ch Nam e a s Viet Thng ve nc. Vay at Viet Thng la at Gaio Ch co phai la at cua Vua HUng Vng khong ?

Ho Hong Bang lam Vua c mi tam i, en nam Qu Mao ( 258 trc tay lch) th b vua nha Thuc lay mat nc. Neu ke t i Kinh Dng Vng en i HV th 18 th co ca thay hai mi i Vua, ma tnh t nam Nham Tuat ( 2879 trc tay lch ) en nam Qu Mao (258 trc tay lch ) th va c 2622 nam. Dau la thng co i na , kho ai song lau c nh the. Xem vay th chuyen i Hong Bang cha chac la xac thc ( Theo Tran Trong Kim )

Nhng theo mot so tai kieu khac th lai co noi ve i Hung Vng nh sau : Xet ra truyen thuyet khong nhat thiet la ba at, do tr tng tng ngh ra. No tat phai phat sinh ra mot s that nao o roi ve sau o nhan dan nhieu i che bien ma ly tng hoa. Nh vay thi ai Hung Vng tuy t nhieu co tnh cach hoang ng song no van co the bieu th cho mot thi ky daim nc cua To Tien Viet, trong o co t nhieu kh v ac biet, lien quan chat che en nhng s kien cua mot thi ky sau : Thi An Dng Vng, ta khong the nao hieu c cac au moi cua nhng dien bien lch s trc va sau thi co ai Viet Nam...

Lai co sach chep 18 v Hung Vng nh sau :

  1. Hung Vng th nhat huy la Loc Tuc, hieu Kinh  Dng Vng.

  2. Hung Vng th hai  huy la Hung Hien, tc Lac Long Quan hieu Sung Lam

  3. Hung Vng th ba huy la Hung Quoc

  4. Hung Vng th t huy la Hung Hiep

  5. Hung Vng th nam huy la Hung Hy

  6. Hung Vng th sau huy la Hung Huy

  7. Hung Vng th bay huy la Hung Chieu

  8. Hung Vng th tam huy la Hung Vy

  9. Hung Vng th chn huy la Hung inh

  10. Hung Vng th mui huy la Hung Vy

  11. Hung Vng th Mi mot huy la Hung Trinh

  12. Hung Vng th mui hai huy la Hung Quy

  13. Hung Vng th mui ba huy la Hung Viet

  14. Hung Vng th mi bon huy la Hung Anh

  15. Hung Vng th  mi lam huy la Hung Trieu

  16. Hung Vng th  mi sau huy la Hung Tao

  17. Hung Vng th  mi bay huy la Hung Nhi

  18. Hung Vng th  mi tam huy la Hung Due

Theo Viet s lc, mot tac pham gia tr i Tran, ve thi ai tren a chep khac vi cac s sach tren va cung t co tnh chat hoang ng hn nh sau :

      Xa ......Giao Ch tieu bieu cho coi xa ngoai Bach Viet. Bo lac cua ho gom  mui lam bo la Giao Ch, Viet Thng, Vu Ninh, Quan Ninh, Gia Ninh ..... en i Trang Vng nha Chu ( 696 , 682 tr. TL  )   trong bo Gia Ninh ( Phong Chau ) xuat hien mot d nhan, co tai dung ao thuat ma thu phuc cac bo lac khac, t xng la Hung Vng, ong o Van Lang, at ten nc la Van Lang, phong tuc thuan hau, chat phac, truyen c mui tam i eu c goi la Hung Vng.

Vua Viet Cau Tien (  505-465 tr. TL )   tng sai s en du Hung Vng chong lai. en cuoi i nha Chu Hung Vng b con Vua Thuc la Phan anh bai roi len thay...

Van theo hai tap sach nay, Van Lang luc bay gi a la mot nc co ky cng, theo che o quan , huyen, phng thc san xuat chu yeu la nghe nong va nghe chai li. Tuc truyen rang, nhng dan chai thng b giong thuong luong lam hai. Hung Vng mi truyen cho dan lay cham khac ( xam )  len mnh cho giong nh loai thuy quai. T o, thuong luong mi s ma thoi lam hai.

Theo Nam Viet Ch cua Tham Hoai Vien th t xa, at Giao Ch co mot quan trng la Hung Vng, sau Hung Vng la Hng Hau va Hung tng chia nhau cai tr cac mien trong nc. Cac sach  Giao chau ngoai vc , Quang Chau Ky , th chep khac la   : Hung Vng th viet la Lac Vng, Hung Hau th viet la LAc Hau, Hung tng th viet la Lac tng. Ve hnh thai xa hoi th giao chau ngoai vc ky   va Quang Chau Ky chep na na nh nhau. Giao Ch co Lac ien ( ruong lac ) , s trong trot can c vao nc thuy trieu len xuong. Ngi trong vao ruong ay e an loc th goi la Lac Hau, cac huyen au au cung co Lac tng , an bang ong dai xanh,tc la hieu lenh ngay nay...

en ay ta nhan thay rang ch Hung Vng ( Viet Nam SL, ai Viet s ky toan th v . v ...) ch quan trng ( Nam Ch Viet ) ch Lac Vng ( Giao chau ngoai vc ky)  ..... eu co ngha la mot v chua te c moi ngi ton sung, mot v thu lanh co kha nang cai quan cac thu lanh cua nhng bo lackhac trong khap nc Van Lang. V nay c goi la Hung Vng. Xa hoi Hung vng c mo ta nh la mot xa hoibien chuyen nhanh chong, t tnh trang ban khai song theo tng bo lac sang mot trang thai co to chc  vi cac c cau hanh chanh, chnh tr, kinh te , van hoa. Theo Viet s lc th thi gian cai tr cua cac v Vua Hung Vng co ve hp ly hn, t i Vua Trang Vng nha Chu en cuoi i nha Chu , tc ke t the ky VI en the ky III trc tay lch, moi v ngoi khoang hai mi lam nam  , co ve xac thc hn con so 2622 nam nhng cuon s khac. Nen van hoa vao thi ly nay cung rat phat trien. Chnh cac V Hung Vng a em nen van hoa o ong en cho hoan thnh mien Bac Viet Namvao khoang the ky III va IV trc tay lch cung nh ho a at nhng nen mong vng chac cho s trng ton va phat trien cua nc Viet Nam sau nay.

Cac khoang thi gian tren a rat an khp cung khaong thi gian sau vi cac cuoc chinh phuc cua Thuc phan, cham dt ho Hong Bang va mot trang s mi lai bat au : Nha Thuc.

T thi ai Hung Vng xa xoi, mu tt o con e lai cho ti ngay nay mot so cau chuyen co tch. Nhng chuyen nay eu co tnh cacg hoang ng tuy nhien, chung ta cung nen ke ra hau co the c oan c them g chang ve thi ai co xa o.

Hau het chung ta eu a c nghe ke hoac co oc roi, nen ay chung ta ch tm hieu y ngha cua tng truyen ma thoi, khong nen viet dai dong van t ma chi.

-         S tch trau cau ( i Hung Vng th IV ) : sinh hoat tinh than cua ngui Lac Viet : luan thng ao ly c ton trong, tnh anh em, ngha v chong.

                             Tnh tham ngha ca ong can

-         S tch banh day banh chng ( i Hung Vng th VI ) : long hieu taho hn ca.

                             Th cha knh me lam au

-         S tch qua da hau ( i Hung Vng th X ) : long kien nhan vng ch e tao lap s nghiep.

                             Da hong nhac ke long son

-         S tch Phu ong Thien Vng ( i Vua Hung Vng th VI ) : mot cay be ln nh thoi trong nhiet tnh yeu que hng.

                             Khen thay tuoi tre tai cao

-         S tch Sn Tinh, Thuy Tinh: sac ep la kh gii li hai e gay han thu gia moi ngi. Ngi ta ngh ra chuyen nayv hang nam eu co bao lut, cho rang o la do Sn Tinh va Thuy Tinh anh nhau ma gay nen

                            Thu anh nhau chi ch hai ngi

Ngoai ra con co nhng chuyen nh Ng Tinh, Ho Tinh , Moc Tinh, giai thch s cao qu cua nguon goc. Neu cao gng khai sang at nc cua cac v anh hung thi thng co. Tuc ci xin cung s m mang, khai song Hong c ke lai het sc m mong trong truyen Than non tang . Noi chung chung a noi len nhng sinh hoat vat chat cung nh tinh tahn cua to tien ta thi buoi au, neu cao gng khai pha cua tien nhan. Chung cung nhan manh en tnh yeu que hng, niem t hao ve giang sn gam voc cua noi giong Viet t ngan xa. Tat ca nhng chuyen cung mot so khac   na a c ghi lai tren Viet ien U linh tap cua Ly te Xuyen va Lng Nam chch quai cua Tran Te Phap la nhng tap truyen co xa nhat cua nc ta.

T xa cac trieu ai va cac the he Viet Nam eu coi Hung Vng la Quoc To va do o rat can trong vi nagy gio to hang nam la ngay 10 thang ba am lch tai en Hung Vng, tren nui Ngha Lnh, lang Hy Cng, huyen Sn V, Phu Lam Thao, tnh Phu Tho Bac Viet. en th Hung Vng c mieu ta nh sau : en th xay tren ngon Ngha Lnh sn ( con goi la Hung Sn ) gom sau gian nha ngoi, ba gian ngoai la hau cung e th cac v Vua Hung. Tren ban th co nhieu bai v. Chung quanh en Hung khong co tng, giau rao che, ch co cay coi moc xum xue t nh xuong chan nui. Muon len en Hung ( con goi la en Thng ) phai treo qua 296 ( co sach ghi 297 ) bac thang bang gach. Tai en co ghi giong ch Han :

         ot ngot cao sn Co Viet Hung Vng nh thap bat thanh vng v 

Vao ngay gio To, dan chung i tray hoi rat ong : Ho t t phng tu tap lai ay, d hoi suot mi hai ngay, t mong  mot  en mi hai thang ba am lch, moi ngay hai lan te le va tham gia vao cac tro vui co truyen nh : hat cheo, anh c, bi, anh u... Ngay chnh le, ngay di chan nui, hng chc s tai m hoi rat ong va vui, roi mot cuoc te le, rc le vat len en thng. Le vat gom co : mot au bo, mot au heo, cung vi hoa qua goi la tam sinh c rc t nh lang en en th. Nhng o la thi tien chien, nay khong biet o la co con hay het ?

Ngay nay vao dp gio To th c to chc tai vn Tao an Saigon. Dp nay con la e neu cao truyen thong tot ep cua nc Viet Nam ta, cung nh e moi ngi cung to long biet n va s han hoan vo tan oi vi cac v Hung khai quoc :

                                .... Nam nam m hoi en Hung,
                                Tieng tam lng lay nc long gan xa ....

Thi ai Hung Vng lam vinh d cho lch s nc ta. e to long biet n To quoc, chung ta can phai bao ve va xay dng x s hau a nc nha en cho hung cng, cho xng ang la con Rong chau Tien.

                                                HOANG- TRONG- NGUYEN- KHANH (e-mail)
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SACH THAM KHAO :

* Viet Nam s lc cua Tran Trong Kim

* Thanh ng ien tch danh nhan t ien.  Trnh Van Thanh

* Viet ien U linh tap- Ly Te Xuyen ( ban dch Le Hu Muc )

* Lnh Nam trch quai- Tran Te Phap ( ban dch Le Hu Muc )

* The gi t do tap XVII so 4/1968.

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